Iskenderun Bay Industrial Symbiosis

Partners: International Synergies, Technology Development Foundation of Turkey (TTGV) and BTC Crude Oil Pipeline Company


International Synergies was a key partner in the Iskenderen Bay Industrial Symbiosis Programme. The project, financed by BTC Crude Oil Pipeline Company in Turkey and managed by the Technology Development Foundation of Turkey (TTGV), involved establishing a facilitated industrial symbiosis network in the Iskenderen Bay Region of Turkey.

The project’s main goals:

  • Forming the technical and administrative infrastructure required for implementation of Industrial Symbiosis applications;
  • Identification of Industrial Symbiosis opportunities in Iskenderun Bay and development and implementation of pilot projects;
  • Establishing a database and a communication network for Industrial Symbiosis applications in Iskenderun Bay;
  • Dissemination of the Industrial Symbiosis  approach among partners, improving the communication for sharing information and experience;
  • Development of a model and plan for a national Turkish Industrial Symbiosis programme.


During the implementation phase, and with continuous and effective communication with the firms in the region and the other local and national partners, a number of symbiotic relationships were established that resulted in improved resource efficiency, reduction of wastes and greenhouse gases being its high priority parameters.

One such example involved fruit juice concentrate producer, Limkon Food Industry Trade Inc. The company generated 12,000 tonnes fruit pulp waste each year as a by-product of its process and wanted to find a way to reuse the material rather than sending it to costly landfill.

The Iskenderen Bay project team identified an opportunity to bring in researchers from the Faculty of Agriculture at Cukurova University to test out potential ways to treat the pulp making it suitable for reuse. The team then called in another business member of the programme, Akay Mining Industry Foreign Trade ltd, who wanted to find an outlet for the waste heat its facility produced while manufacturing lime.

Researchers at the University carried out tests to dry the fruit pulp waste using the waste heat from Akay Mining’s production process, successfully transforming the material into animal feed. The nutrient composition and energy value analysis proved that the quality of the animal feed end product was high, which was critical to the full commercialisation of the scheme.

Implementing this three way synergy redirected 115 tonnes of petroleum coke waste heat, reduced carbon dioxide emissions by 3,500 tonnes, reused 12,000 tonnes of waste pulp each year and produced 1400 tonnes animal feed for reselling.

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